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Thyagaraja Swami

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Tyagaraja tyāgarāja (4 May 1767 – 6 January 1847), also known as Tyāgayya, was a renowned composer of Carnatic music, a form of Indian classical music. He was prolific and highly influential in the development of India"s classical music tradition. Tyagaraja and his contemporaries, Shyama Shastri and Muthuswami Dikshitar, were regarded as the Trinity of Carnatic music. Tyagaraja composed thousands of devotional compositions, most in Telugu and in praise of Lord Rama, many of which remain popular today. Of special mention are five of his compositions called the Pancharatna Kritis (English: "five gems"), which are often sung in programs in his honour. Tyagaraja saw the reigns of four kings of the Maratha dynasty — Tulaja II (1763–1787), Amarasimha (1787–1798), Serfoji II (1798–1832) and Sivaji II (1832–1855),although he served none of them. Tyāgarāja was born Kakarla Tyagabrahmam in 1767 to a Telugu Vaidiki Mulakanadu Brahmin family in Tiruvarur in present-day Thanjavur District of Tamil Nadu. There is a school of thought led by "Kakarla" indicates that they were originally migrants from the village of the same name in the Cumbum taluk of Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh. His family belonged to the Smarta tradition and Bharadvaja gotra. Tyagaraja was the third son of his parents, and Panchanada Brahmam and Panchapakesha Brahmam are his older brothers. He was named Tyaga Brahmam/Tyagaraja after Tyagaraja, the presiding deity of the temple at Thiruvarur, the place of his birth. Tyagaraja"s paternal grandfather was Giriraja Kavi. Giriraja Kavi was a poet and musician. Giriraja was born in Kakarla village, Cumbum taluk in Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh. He is believed to have belonged to the Mulakanadu sect. Tyagaraja"s maternal grandfather was named Kalahastayya, but was frequently addressed as Veena Kalahastayya as he was a noted veena player. Tyagaraja learned to play the veena in his childhood from Kalahastayya. After Kalahastayya"s death Tyagaraja found Naradeeyam, a book related to music Tyagaraja hero-worshipped the celestial sage Narada; a reference to this is Tyagaraja"s krithi Vara Nārada (rāga Vijayaśrī, Ādi tāḷam). Legend has it that a hermit taught him a mantra invoking Narada, and Tyagaraja, meditating on this mantra, received a vision of Narada and was blessed with the book Svarārnavam by the sage. During his last days, Tyagaraja took vows of Sannyasa. Tyagaraja died on a Pushya Bahula Panchami day, 6 January 1847, at the age of 79. His last composition before his death was Giripai Nelakonna (rāga Sahāna, Ādi tāḷam). He was buried at the banks of the Kaveri river at Thiruvaiyaru. Remembrance : Tyagaraja Aradhana, the commemorative music festival is held every year at Thiruvaiyaru in the months of January to February in Tyagaraja"s honor. This is a week-long festival of music where various Carnatic musicians from all over the world converge at his resting place. On the Pushya Bahula Panchami, thousands of people and hundreds of Carnatic musicians sing the five Pancharatna Kritis in unison, with the accompaniment of a large bank of accompanists on veenas, violins, flutes, nadasvarams, mridangams and ghatams. A sports complex in New Delhi, Thyagaraj Sports Complex, was named after him. A crater on the planet Mercury was named after Tyagaraja in 1976. Ghana Raga Pancharatnam Main article: Pancharatna Kriti 1 jagadānanda kāraka - Nāṭa 2 duḍukugala nannē - Gauḷa 3 sādhiñcenē ō manasā - Ārabhi 4 kana kana rucirā - Varāḷi 5 endarō mahānubhāvulu - Śrī Thiruvottiyur Pancharatnam : These kritis are composed on the Goddess Tripurasundari of the Thyagaraja Temple at Thiruvottiyur. It is said that Thyagaraja composed these at the request of his disciple Veena Kuppayyar. 1 kanna talli - Sāvēri 2 sundari ninnu - Ārabhi 3 sundari nannindarilō - Bēgadā 4 sundari nī divya rūpamunu - Kalyāṇi 5 dārini telusukoṇṭi - Suddha Sāvēri Kovur Pancharatnam : The following kritis are composed on the presiding deity of the Sundareswarar Temple at Kovur 1 ī vasudha - Sahānā 2 kōri sēvimpa rārē - Kharaharapriya 3 śambhō mahādēva - Pantuvarāḷi 4 nammi vaccina - Kalyāṇi 5 sundarēśvaruni - Shankarābharanam Shriranga Pancharatnam : 1 cūtāmu rārē - Ārabhi 2 ō raṅga śāyi - Kāmbhōji 3 karuṇa jūḍavayya - Sārangā 4 rāju veḍale - Tōdi 5 vinarādā - Devagāndhāri Lalgudi Pancharatnam Thyagaraja composed the following krithis on the deities Saptarishishwarar and his consort Pravrddha Shrimati at their temple in Lalgudi (previously known as Thiruvavaduthurai). 1 gati nīvani - Tōdi 2 lalitē śrī pravṛddhē - Bhairavi 3 dēva śrī - Madhyamāvati 4 mahita pravṛddha - Kāmbhōji 5 īśa pāhi māṃ - Kalyāṇi Kritis on Panchanadheeswarar Temple in Thiruvaiyaru Pancha Nadīśvara Kritis : 1 ilalō praṇatārti - Athāna 2 evarunnāru brōva - Māḷavashri 3 ēhi trijagadīśa - Sārangā 4 muccaṭa brahmādulaku - Madhyamāvati Dharmasamvardhani Devi Kritis 1 karuṇa jūḍavamma - Tōdi 2 parā śakti manupa rādā - Sāvēri 3 nīvu brōva valenamma - Sāvēri 4 bālē bālēndu bhūṣaṇi - Rītigauḷa 5 amma dharmasaṃvardhani - Athāna 6 vidhi śakrādulaku - Yamunā Kaḷyāṇi 7 śivē pāhi mām - Kalyāṇi 8 amba ninu nammiti - Ārabhi Kritis composed at Kanchipuram Varadaraja Perumal Kritis : 1 varadā navanītāśa pāhi - Rāgapanjaram 2 varada rāja ninu kōri vacciti - Swarabhushani Kanchi Kamakshi Kritis : 1 vināyakuni valenu brōvavē - Madhyamāvati Tirupati Venkateswara Kritis 1 tera tīyaga rādā - Gauḷipantu 2 veṅkaṭēśa ninu sēvimpanu - Madhyamāvati Neelayadakshi Kritis : The following kritis are addressed to Goddess Neelayatakshi of Kayarohanaswami Temple at Nagapattinam 1 evaru teliya poyyēru - Todi 2 karmamē balavantamāyā - Saveri Divya Nāma Sankīrtana : vara-līla gāna-lōla sura-pāla suguṇa-jāla bharita nīla-gaḷa hṛdālaya - Shanakarabharanam Dīna janāvana śrī rāma - Dānava haraṇa śrī rāma - vīna vimāma śrī rāma - mīna śarīra śrī rāma - Bhupalam Callarē rāmacandrunipai pūla - Ahiri Daśaratha nandana dānava mardana dayayā māṃ pāhi - Asaveri maravakarā nava manmatha rūpuni - Devagandhari nārāyaṇa hari nārāyaṇa hari - Yamuna Kalyani ō rāma ō rāma ōṅkāra dhāma - Arabhi pāhi rāma rāmayanucu bhajana śēyavē - Kharaharapriya pāhi māṃ harē mahānubhāva rāghava - Saurashtra pālaya śrī raghuvīra sukṛpālaya rāja kumāra māṃ - Devagandhari rāma pāhi mēgha śyāma pāhi guṇadhāma mām pāhi ō rāma - Kapi rāma rāma rāma māṃ pāhi - Yamuna Kalyani vandanamu raghu nandana sētu bandhana bhakta candana rāma - Sahana Utsava Sampradāya Kritis : 1 heccarikagā rārā hē rāmacandra - Yadukula Kāmbhōji 2 sītā kalyāṇa vaibhōgamē - Kurinji/Shankarābharanam 3 nagumōmu galavāni nā manōharuni - Madhyamāvati 4 nāpāli śrī rāma bhūpālaka sōma - Shankarābharanam 5 jaya maṅgaḷaṃ nitya śubha maṅgaḷaṃ - Ghaṇta 6 jaya maṅgaḷaṃ nitya śubha maṅgaḷaṃ - Nādanāmakriya 7 patiki hāratī rē - Surati 8 patiki maṅgaḷa hāratirē - Ārabhi 9 śōbhānē - Pantuvarāḷi 10 pūla pānupu mīda - Āhiri 11 baḍalika tīra - Rītigauḷa 12 lāli lāliyaniyūcedarā - Harikāmbhōji 13 lāli lālayya lāli - Kēdāragaula 14 rāma śrī rāma lāli - Shankarābharanam 15 uyyālalūgavayya śrī rāma - Niīāṃbari 16 lāliyūgavē māpāli daivamā - Niīāṃbari 17 rāma rāma rāma lāli - Sahānā 18 kṣīra sāgara vihāra - Ānanda Bhairavi 19 rakṣa peṭṭarē doraku - Bhairavi 20 śrī rāma rāma rāma - Niīāṃbari 21 jō jō rāma ānanda ghana - Rītigauḷa 22 mēlukōvayya mammēlukō rāma - Bauḷi 23 mēlukō dayā nidhī - Saurāṣtram 24 jānakī nāyaka - Dhanyāsi 25 mā rāmacandruniki - Kēdāragaula Musical Dramas : Prahlada Bhakti Vijayam : śrī gaṇapatini sēvimpa rārē - Saurāṣṭra vāsudēvayani veḍalinayī dauvārikuni kanarē - Kaḷyāṇi vinatāsuta rārā nā vinuti gaikonarā - husEni nārada muni veḍalina suguṇātiśayamu vinarē - Pantuvaraḷi ipuḍaina nanu talacinārā svāmi - Arabhi ēṭi janmamidi hā ō rāma - Varāḷi ē nāṭi nōmu phalamō ē dāna balamō - bhairavi aḍugu varamulaniccedanu - Arabhi tanalōnē dhyāniñci tanmayamē kāvalerā - Dēvagāndhāri rārā māyiṇṭidāka raghuvīra sukumāra mrokkedarā - Asāvēri Nouka Charitram : Srungarinchu koni vedaliri - Surati Aadavaarella goodi - Yadhu kula Khamboji Choodare chelulaaraa Yamuna devi - Panthuvarali Yemani nera nammu kondhumu Krishna - Saurashtram Yememo theliyaka balikedharu namida dayleka - Saurashtram ōḍanu jaripē mucchaṭa kanarē vanitalāra nēḍu - Sāranga Thanayandhe premayanusu viribonulu - Bhairavi Yenomu nochithmo chelula - Punnagavarali cālu cālu nī yuktulu naḍavadu sārasākṣa śrī kṛṣṇā - Sāvēri Choothamu rare yi vedkanu - Kapi evaru manaku samānamilalō-nintulāra nēḍu - Dēvagāndhāri Unnathavuna nunda niyyadhu - Gantaa Alla kallolamayenamma Yamunadevi - Saurashtram perugu pAlu bujiyinchi - Gantaa kRshNA mAkEmi dhova baluku - Punnagavarali indukEmi sEtu mamma - Varali vEda vAkyamani yenchiri - Mohana hari hari nIyokka divya - Punnagavarali gandhamu puyyarugā pannīru gandhamu puyyarugā - Punnāga Varāḷi ghuma ghumayani vasanathoSaurashtram - Saurashtram mA kulamuna kiha pramosagina - Surati Other Kritis : abhimānamu lēdēmi nīvabhinaya vacanamulāḍēdēmi - Andhāḷi āḍa mōḍi galadā rāmayya māṭa (lāḍa) - Chāru kēśi anurāgamu lēni manasuna sujñānamu rādu - Sarasvati aparādhamulanōrva samayamu kṛpa jūḍumu ghanamaina nā - Rasāḷi appa rāma bhakti yentō gopparā mā (yappa) - Pantu Varāḷi āragimpavē pālāragimpavē - Tōḍi bāgāyenayya nī māyalentō - chandra jyoti bantu reethi kolu - Hamsa nādam brōva bhāramā raghurāma bhuvanamella nīvai nannokani - Bahudāri cakkani rāja mārgamuluṇḍaga sandula dūranēla ō manasā - Kharaharapriya daya sēyavayyā sadaya rāmacandra - yadukula kāmbhoji dina maṇi vaṃśa tilaka lāvaṇya dīna śaraṇya - hari kāmbhōji hyānamē varamaina gaṅgā snānamē manasā - dhanyāsi dvaitamu sukhamā advaitamu sukhamā - Rīti Gauḷa ē dāri sañcarinturā yika palkarā - Śr̥ti ranjani ē tāvunarā nilakaḍa nīku - Kaḷyāṇi ēmani pogaḍudurā śrī rāma ninn(ēmani) - Vīra vasantaṁ ēmi dōva palkumāyikanu nēnendu pōdu śrī rāma - Sāranga ennāḷḷu tirigēdiyennāḷḷu - Māḷava śrī enta vēḍukondu rāghava pantamēlarā ō rāghava - Sarasvati manōhari evariccirirā śaracāpamulu nīkina kulābdhi candra - Madhyamāvati evari māṭa vinnāvō rāvō indu lēvō bhaḷi bhaḷi - Kāmbhōji gānāmūrtē śrī kṛṣṇa vēṇu gāna lōla tribhuvana pāla pāhi - Gāna mūrti giri pai nelakonna rāmuni guri tappaka kaṇṭi - Sahana hari dāsulu veḍale muccaṭa kani ānandamāye dayāḷō - Yamuna Kaḷyāṇi kāla haraṇa mēlarā harē sītārāma - shuddha saveri kalugunā pada nīraja sēva gandha vāha tanaya - Pūrṇa lalita karuṇā samudra nanu kāvavē śrī rāma bhadra - Dēvagāndhāri koluvaiyunnāḍē kōdaṇḍa pāṇi - Dēvagāndhāri kṣīra sāgara śayana nannu cintala peṭṭa valenā rāma - Dēvagāndhāri līlagānu jūcu - Dundhubi/Divyamani mā jānaki cēṭṭa paṭṭaga maharājavaitivi - Kāmbhōji manasā eṭulōrtunē nā manavi cēkonavē ō - Maḷayamārutam manasā śrī rāmacandruni maravakē ēmarakē ō (manasā) Īsha - manōhari manavyāḷakinca rādaṭē marmamella telpedanē manasā - Naḷina kānti mari-mari ninnē moraliḍa nī manasuna daya rādu - Kāmbhōji arugēlarā ō rāghava - jayanta śrī mōhana rāma mukha jita sōma mudduga palkumā - Mōhana mōkṣamu galadā bhuvilō jīvanmuktulu kāni vārulaku - Sāramati nāda lōluḍai brahmānandamandavē manasā - Kaḷyāṇa vasanta nāda sudhā rasambilanu narākṛti yāye manasā - Arabhi ādatanumaniśaṃ śaṅkaram namāmi mē manasā śirasā - chitta ranjani nagumōmu ganalēni nā jāli telisi nanu brōvaga rādā śrī raghuvara nī - Abhēri nā moralanu vini ēmaravalenā pāmara manujulalō ō rāma - Arabhi nā morālakimpavēmi śrī rāma - Dēvagāndhāri nannu kanna talli nā bhāgyamā nārāyaṇi dharmāmbikē - Sindhu kannaḍa nārada gāna lōla nata jana paripāla - Atāṇā nidhi cāla sukhamā rāmuni sannidhi sēva sukhamā - nijamuga palku manasā - Kaḷyāṇi nija marmamulanu telisina vārini nīvalayiñcēdēmakō rāma - Umābharaṇam ninnē bhajana sēyu vāḍanu - Nāṭa ninnē nera namminānu nīrajākṣa nanu brōvumu - Pantu Varāḷi iravadi sukhada nirmala rūpa nirjita muni śāpa - Ravi chandrika ō rājīvākṣa ōrajūpulu jūcedavērā nē nīku vērā - Arabhi rāga sudhā rasa pānamu jēsi rañjillavē ō manasā - Andōḷika palukavēmi nā daivamā parulu navvunadi nyāyamā - Pūrṇa candrika para lōka bhayamu lēka bhava pāśa baddhulayyēru - Mandāri raghu nāyaka nī pāda yuga rājīvamula nē viḍa jāla śrī (raghu) - Hamsa dhvani rāma kōdaṇḍa rāma rāma kalyāṇa rāma - Bhairavi rākā śaśi vadana iṅka parākā - takka āma kathā sudhā rasa pānamoka rājyamu jēsunē - Madhyamāvati ramiñcuvārevarurā raghūttamā ninu vinā - Supōṣiṇi ānidi rādu surāsurulakaina - Maṇiraṃgu sāmaja vara gamana sādhu hṛtsārasābja pāla kālātīta vikhyāta - Hindōḷaṃ saṅgīta jñānamu bhakti vinā sanmārgamu kaladē manasā - Dhanyāsi sarasa sāma dāna bhēda daṇḍa catura sāṭi daivamevarē brōvavē - Kāpi sītamma māyamma śrī rāmuḍu mā taṇḍri - vasanta sītāpatē nā manasuna siddhāntamani yunnānurā - khamās sītāvara saṅgīta jnanamu dhāta vrāyavalerā - Dēvagāndhāri smaraṇē sukhamu rāma nāma naruḍai puṭṭinanduku nāma - Janaranjani ōbhillu sapta svara sundarula bhajimpavē manasā - Jaganmōhini sogasu jūḍa taramā - kannaḍa Gaula sogasugā mṛdaṅga tāḷamu jata gūrci ninu sokka jēyu dhīruḍevvaḍō - śriranjani śrī raghu kulamandu puṭṭi sītanu ceyi konina rāma candra - Hamsadhvani śrī rāma pādamā nī kṛpa cālunē cittāniki rāvē - Amṛta vāhini sudhā mādhurya bhāṣaṇa - sindhu rāma kriya sundara daśaratha nandana vandanamonariñcedarā - kāpi telisi rāma cintanatō nāmamu sēyavē ō manasā - Pūrṇa chandrika teliya lēru rāma bhakti mārgamunu - Dhēnuka śrī tuḷasamma māyiṇṭa nelakonavamma - ī mahini nī samānamevaramma baṅgāru bomma (śrī) - Dēvagāndhāri tulasī daḷamulacē santoṣamugā pūjintu - Māyāmāḻavagauḻa vidulaku mrokkeda saṅgīta kōvidulaku - Māyāmāḻavagauḻa vinarādā nā manavi - Dēvagāndhāri yōcanā kamala lōcana nanu brōva - Darbār yēlara krishna - ambhoji Other Compositions that contain the Thyagaraja mudra Abhiṣṭa varadā - Hamsadhvani Sārasa nētra - Śaṃkarābharaṇaṃ
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carnatic